What is chromosome?

Chromosome is one of a group of threadlike structures contained in the nucleus of a cell; it contains DNA encoding genetic information;
human cells normally have 46 chromosomes.
acrocentric c. A chromosome with the centromere placed very close to one end so that the shorter arm is very small.
metacentric c. A chromosome with a centrally placed centromere that divides the chromosome into two arms of approximately equal length.
mitochondrial c. A small circular chromosome in the mitochondria of a cell; it contains its own unique DNA and is the basis for maternal inheritance with a high rate of mutations; has been demonstrated in several neuromuscular disorders.
Philadelphia c. An abnormal minute chromosome probably derived from a small acrocentric chromosome by loss of a large part of the long arm; found in cultured leukocytes of many patients afflicted with chronic myelocytic leukemia.
c. satellite A small chromosomal segment separated from the main body of the chromosome by a secondary constriction; in humans, usually associated with the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome.
sex c.’s Chromosomes responsible for the determination of sex; normally females have two X chromosomes, males have one X and one Y.
X c. One of the sex chromosomes carried by the female in a double dose and by the male in a single dose.
Y c. One of the sex chromosomes carried by the male in a single dose.

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