What is diabetes?

Diabetes is general term for diseases characterized by excessive excretion of urine;
when used alone the term refers to diabetes mellitus.
d. 1 See type 1 diabetes mellitus.
d. 2 See type 2 diabetes mellitus.
adult-onset d. See type 2 diabetes mellitus.
alloxan d. The production of diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by the administration of alloxan, an agent that damages the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.
brittle d. See labile diabetes.
bronzed d. Diabetes associated with hemochromatosis. See also hemochromatosis.
gestational d. mellitus Glucose intolerance detected by a glucose tolerance test during pregnancy; although limited to pregnancy, patients who develop gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing diabetes in the nonpregnant state.
d. insipidus A comparatively rare form of diabetes characterized by excessive thirst
and the passage of large amounts of dilute urine, due to an inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary.
insulin-dependent d. mellitus See type 1 diabetes mellitus.
juvenile d., juvenile-onset d. Former terms for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
labile d. Diabetes mellitus that is difficult to control, with unpredictable and frequent episodes of hyper - and hypoglycemia.
latent d. mellitus See impaired glucose tolerance, under tolerance.
maturity-onset d. mellitus See type 2 diabetes mellitus.
maturity-onset d. of youth A subtype of type 2 diabetes mellitus characterized by a gradual onset during late adolescence or early adulthood.
d. mellitus A chronic systemic disease of disordered metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat; its primary feature is inappropriately high levels of glucose in the blood. The condition has been classified into two major categories ; in the former there is insulin deficiency and in the latter there is diminished insulin effectiveness. Longstanding diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy.
nephrogenic d. insipidus A rare familial form of diabetes insipidus due to severely diminished ability of the kidney tubules to reabsorb water; it does not respond to the administration of antidiuretic hormone.
noninsulin-dependent d. mellitus See type 2 diabetes mellitus.
preclinical d. mellitus See impaired glucose tolerance, under tolerance.
steroidogenic d. Abnormal glucose tolerance, or overt diabetes mellitus, induced by adrenocortical steroid hormones or therapeutic analogs.
subclinical d. mellitus See impaired glucose tolerance, under tolerance.
type 1 d. mellitus An often severe type of diabetes mellitus characterized by a sudden onset of insulin deficiency, with a tendency to develop ketoacidosis; may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood and adolescence; the disorder is due to destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, possibly by a viral infection and autoimmune reactions; symptoms and signs include elevated blood glucose levels excessive urination, chronic excessive thirst, excessive eating, weight loss, and irritability; affected persons must have injections of insulin to survive. Also called diabetes 1. Formerly called juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes; insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; diabetes mellitus type I.
type 2 d. mellitus A form of diabetes mellitus characterized by a gradual onset that may occur at any age but is most common in adults over the age of 40 years, especially those with a tendency to obesity; may be due to a tissue insensitivity to insulin, or to a delayed insulin release from the pancreas in response to glucose intake; a genetic predisposition is noted when it occurs in young people. Also called diabetes 2. Formerly called adult-onset diabetes mellitus; maturity - onset diabetes mellitus; non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; diabetes mellitus type II.
vasopressin-resistant d. See nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

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